Pest and Disease of Coffee Crops
Common pests that attack coffee plants in Indonesia are:
1. Coffee plant pest that damages the coffee plant, Root Worm. Worm root attack coffee plant roots:
- Tylenchus Sinensis and Tylenchus coffea;
- Heterodera Marioni.
2. Pests that damage the stems and branches of coffee,
- Pest larvae are stem borers, into where the larvae become cocoons. How to eradicate this pest is to cut and then fill the tree that has been attacked.
- Xylosamdrus Morstati or Xylobarus Morstati. This pest is gnawing on the main stem measuring + 1.80mm;
- Phassus Damar, is a caterpillar worm in disputes;
- Xylosamdrus Morigerus or Xylobarus Morigerus.
3. Other pests that damage the coffee plant,
- Fleas, Fleas of coffee plants
- Powdered fruit coffee powder, namely Stephanoderis Hampei
Diseases that often attack coffee plants in Indonesia are very important are as follows:
1. Diseases that attack the roots
Signs in general, the growth of the leaves is not fresh. Wood and its direction is like. The color from green turns to yellow and then brown and then falls.
a. Fomes Noxius Carner or Chocolate Bone Fungus.
This type of fungus in addition to generally attack the roots of coffee and other plants, such as rubber. In addition, firearms and other auxiliary trees. The trick is radiating sour root contacts to healthy roots that grow side by side with each other.
b. Black root mushroom
From this group we will know 2 types of mushroom, first is Rosellinia Bunodes and the second is Rosellinia Arcuata mushroom.
The first mushroom there are signs of dead trees suddenly. In the stem near the neck of the root there is a yarn of black fungus. This thread on the next level will become a webbing. At that time the bark was dead.
The second type of mushroom has a shape and state like the Rosellinia Bunodes and so does the sign. Mysellium between bark and wooden animal shape with white color.
c. Rotten disease from the root skin.
Attacked the equestrian roots and large parts. This disease attacks young plants. Look for major infections through sudden injuries, sickles or other tools and time to work on the ground or even while grazing.
Diseases that attack these roots can generally be eradicated by the way trees are attacked by demolition dismantled. All the stumps and roots of old plants around the coffee tree are also dismantled and burned as well.
2. Diseases that attack the stems, branches and twigs
a. Upas Mushroom Disease (Salmonikolor Contaminant)
- This disease attacks the coffee tree
- Stems that are attacked by many pink membranes, then become white (spore collection). At this time the skin becomes dead. Benag-benag fungus can then spread to the petiole, leaf blossom, flowers and coffee fruit.
How to eradicate fungal disease upas adalh by cutting and taste part of coffee plants attacked by fungi.
b. Dead end disease or Top Sterfte
The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia fungi, attacks on young coffee gardens, and has not been pruned. Signs of coffee plants affected by this disease are:
- asymmetrical branching growth, followed by a gradual death of the ends of the stems from the tip of the tree.
- The leaves are in short branches with a dark, yellowish and then fallen color.
This disease exists between the high 200 meters up and on the garden shade less thick.
How to eradicate this disease is by pruning and loving branches that are sick, and done in turn again by special forces.
3. Leaf diseases
a. Hemileia Vastatrix
Attacks the most on Arabica coffee in the lowlands. Attack on the lower leaf blade. Signs there are patches of yellow color, then turned into an old yellow. Finally become Chocolate and black, then this leaves fall by itself. Eradication of this disease is done when the plants are still in the nursery, that is by sprayed with B.B on the lower leaves.
b. Cercospora Coffeicola
The signs of the attack are the same as Hemileia Vastatrix, the only difference is that the spots are round and obvious. How to eradicate the disease is the same as how mengantsan Hemileia Vastatrix disease, which is sprayed with B.B on the lower leaves.
c. Scorched Tailor
The signs are the top version of the leaf is a black membrane (derived from a former disastrous disposal of liquid nutrients in young plants). This black membrane as an excellent fungus medium, such as leaf assimilation and heat absorbers so the leaves to die.
4. Disease on flowers and coffee fruit
a. Disease Cephaleuros Coffea, attack coffee fruit
b. Star Flower Disease, the flower attack on Arabica species in wetlands.
c. Fruit Diseases Fruits, for this type of disease that affects coffee fruit, is very dangerous for us as a coffee grower. Because it will be fine:
- Miscarriage of young fruit
The crushed young fruits will fall, and the fallen fruit can reach 7-14 percent of the production
- Decrease in the quality of coffee, ie coffee beans perforated, and the attack rate can reach 40-50 percent of the weight of coffee. In accordance with F.A.Q (Fir Average Quality of the Season), the quality of coffee can only hold 2 percent of coffee powder.
- Depreciation of heavy coffee, because due to the blow then the weight of coffee will shrink. Depreciation rates can reach 30-50 percent of the weight of seeds attacked.